Most electric cars are equipped with lithium-ion batteries. When charging is in progress, lithium ions from the cathode, through a conductor (electrolyte), move to the anode made of carbon. In the process of discharging (when the battery begins to work), the reverse process occurs. However, the cathode is not completely restored and cannot accept the entire volume of ions. As a result, fewer ions enter the cathode, and the battery itself loses its capacity. With a loss of approximately 30% of its capacity, the battery is considered inoperative. This can take 5-10 years depending on the battery design.